The author holding a large mudbrick from the site of OT Jericho. Jericho was strongly fortified (Josh 2:5, 7, 15; 6:5, 20). Holland described that excavations revealed the “remains of three successive and massive plastered ramparts which surrounded” the city. The gateway was uncovered in 1998 by the University of Rome. The fortification walls collapsed at the time the city was destroyed, possibly by earthquake activity (Josh 6:20. See Fig. 58).